Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the battery could also be affected.
A battery is a type of battery, and its function is to store limited electrical energy and use it in a suitable place. It works by converting chemical energy into electrical energy.
It uses the lead plate filled with spongy lead as the negative electrode, the lead plate filled with lead dioxide as the positive electrode, and uses 22-28% dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. When charging, electrical energy is converted into chemical energy, and when discharging, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. When the battery is discharging, metal lead is the negative electrode, which undergoes an oxidation reaction and is oxidized to lead sulfate; lead dioxide is the positive electrode, which undergoes a reduction reaction and is reduced to lead sulfate. When the battery is charged with direct current, lead and lead dioxide are formed at the two poles, respectively. When the power source is removed, it returns to its pre-discharge state, forming a chemical battery. Lead-acid batteries are batteries that can be repeatedly charged and discharged, and are called secondary batteries. Its voltage is 2V, usually three lead-acid batteries are connected in series, and the voltage is 6V. The car uses 6 lead-acid batteries connected in series to form a 12V battery pack. The lead-acid battery should be supplemented with sulfuric acid after a period of use to keep the electrolyte containing 22-28% dilute sulfuric acid.
Lithium battery is a kind of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as negative electrode material and uses non-aqueous electrolyte solution. The earliest lithium battery came from the great inventor Edison.
Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. Therefore, lithium batteries have not been used for a long time.
With the development of microelectronics technology in the twentieth century, the number of miniaturized devices is increasing, which puts forward high requirements for power supply. Lithium batteries have then entered a large-scale practical stage.
It was first used in pacemakers. Due to the extremely low self-discharge rate of lithium batteries, the discharge voltage is gentle. It makes it possible to implant the pacemaker into the human body for long-term use.
Lithium batteries generally have a nominal voltage higher than 3.0 volts, and are more suitable for integrated circuit power supplies. Manganese dioxide batteries are widely used in computers, calculators, cameras, and watches.
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Europe has been facing the gas shortage problem since the second half of 2021. The worsening situation in Russia and Ukraine has reduced Russian gas shipments to Europe, leading to a doubling of European gas prices. Energy shortages have sent electricity prices soaring. For these reasons, it is predicted that the price of the battery will continue to increase.
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