The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle AlN powder are still very uncertain.
Aluminum Nitride Applications
Due to the piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride, epitaxially grown thin films of crystalline Aluminum nitride are used for surface acoustic sensors (SAW) deposited on silicon wafers. One application is an RF filter, widely used in mobile phones, called a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). This is a MEMS device that uses aluminum nitride sandwiched between two metal layers.
AlN is also used to construct piezoelectric micromechanical ultrasonic transducers that emit and receive an ultrasound and can be used for aerial ranging at distances up to one meter.
Metallization allows AlN to be used in electronic applications similar to alumina and beryllium oxide. AlN nanotubes, as inorganic quasi-one-dimensional nanotubes, with isoelectronic carbon nanotubes, have been proposed as chemical sensors for toxic gases.
Currently, there is a lot of research into the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that operate under ULTRAVIOLET light using gallium nitride-based semiconductors. Using aluminum gallium nitride alloys, wavelengths as short as 250 nm have been achieved. In 2006, inefficient AlN LED emission at 210 nm was reported.
AlN application industries include:
Dielectric layer in an optical storage medium,
The electronic substrate, chip carrier that needs a high thermal conductivity,
As a crucible for growing gallium arsenide crystals,
Steel and semiconductor manufacturing.
Aluminum Nitride Difficulties
At present, aluminum nitride also has some problems.
First, the powder is easy to form aluminum hydroxide with a hydroxy group in the wet environment, and the alumina layer is formed on the surface of AlN powder. The alumina lattice is dissolved into a large amount of oxygen, which reduces its thermal conductivity but also changes its physical and chemical properties, bringing difficulties to the application of AlN powder. The inhibition of hydrolysis treatment of AlN powder is mainly to coat the surface of AlN particles with a substance using a chemical bond or physical adsorption to isolate them from water, to avoid the occurrence of a hydrolysis reaction. At present, the main methods of inhibiting hydrolysis treatment are surface chemical modification and surface physical coating.
Second, the high price of aluminum nitride limits its application to a certain extent. The preparation of aluminum nitride powder generally requires a high temperature, which leads to high energy consumption in the process of production and preparation, and at the same time, there are safety risks, which is also the main drawback that some high-temperature preparation methods cannot achieve industrial production. Moreover, the impurities in the process of production preparation added to the production of harmful products or problems, such as excessive carbon reduction reaction carbide powder removal problems, as well as the chemical vapor deposition method of by-product hydrogen chloride removal problems, which require the preparation of aluminum nitride for reaction products in the process of the purification, it also led to the preparation of aluminum nitride production cost is high.
Aluminum Nitride Price
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
If you are looking for the latest AlN price, you can send us your inquiry for a quote. ([email protected])
Aluminum Nitride Supplier
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials, including silicon powder, nitride powder, graphite powder, zinc sulfide, calcium nitride, 3D printing powder, etc.
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