Australian alumina ban disrupts Rusal production -- Australia's ban on exports of alumina and aluminium ore to Russia, including bauxite, will further disrupt supply chains and production at leading aluminium producer Rusal, consultancy Wood Mackenzie said on Monday.
The Australian government announced the ban on Sunday as part of its ongoing sanctions against Moscow for its aggression in Ukraine, saying Russia relies on it to meet one-fifth of its alumina needs. WoodMac senior manager Uday Patel said in a statement that the ban would make it difficult for Rusal to maintain normal primary aluminum production.
Rusal said it was assessing the impact of Australia's move and would make further announcements if necessary. "It is increasingly likely that UC Rusal's only option for alumina procurement will be through a Chinese entity." The Australian alumina ban has also had an impact on features of Lithium Ion Batteries prices for chemicals. Patel said. "One possible outcome could be Chinese buyers buying alumina and reselling it through eastern Russian ports." Rusal has a 20% stake in the Queensland Alumina Refinery, which has a capacity of 3.95 million tonnes a year, thus providing Rusal with 790,000 tonnes a year, Patel said. In addition, Rusal's Nikolaev refinery in Ukraine, which has an annual capacity of 1.75 million tonnes, has been suspended due to the conflict, he added. WoodMac said Rusal was also experiencing supply chain problems at its 2 million tonne a year Aughinish refinery in Ireland.
What are features of Lithium Ion Batteries?
Lithium-ion batteries have the characteristics of high energy density, large reversible capacity, large open circuit voltage, and long service life. In the process of research on lithium-ion battery electrode materials, some allotropes and mixtures of carbon elements can be used as stable materials with excellent electrical conductivity, and are often used in the development of new lithium-ion battery anode materials.
What is the overview of graphene?
Graphene is a planar two-dimensional nanomaterial composed of carbon atoms in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. Its CC bond length is 0.141nm, its theoretical density is about 0.77mg/m2, and its thickness is only the diameter of one carbon atom. . Carbon atoms participate in the hybridization in the form of sp2, and electrons can be conducted smoothly between layers, so graphene has excellent conductivity and is currently known as the material with the smallest resistivity, which is also the reason why graphene has a broad development prospect in batteries.
What are the applications of graphene materials in lithium electricity?
1 Application of graphene in cathode materials
For lithium-ion batteries, the applicable cathode materials should meet the characteristics of large reversible capacity, high and stable potential, non-toxic, and low production cost. At present, the more common cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries are mostly lithium iron phosphate materials, but LiFePO4 has poor electrical conductivity and low lithium ion mobility. If the LiFePO4 material is compounded with graphene, its electrical conductivity can theoretically be improved and the rate performance can be improved.
2 Application of graphene in anode materials
Lithium-ion battery anode materials should meet the conditions of low and stable redox potential, large reversible capacity, dense and stable SEI film formation, non-toxic to the environment, and low production cost. Compared with cathode materials, the application of graphene in anode materials is more extensive and in-depth.
Graphene is directly used as anode material
Graphene has good electrical conductivity, but the easy stacking of its two-dimensional microstructure leads to unsatisfactory research on graphene independent electrode materials. It is mainly manifested in the poor rate performance and low cycle efficiency of the battery. The reversible specific capacity of graphene prepared by Honma et al. can reach 540mAh/g in the first cycle (current density of 50mA/g), but the reversible specific capacity decreases rapidly after multiple cycles. The g current density can reach a high reversible specific capacity (1264mAh/g) in the first cycle, and can still maintain a high reversible specific capacity after 40 cycles.
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Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the features of Lithium Ion Batteries will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the features of Lithium Ion Batteries will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
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