Biden recently announced that the United States successfully carried out a drone operation against an al-Qaeda target in Kabul, Afghanistan, on Saturday, killing al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Al-Zawahiri joined al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden in 1998. As the organization's "chief strategist", al-Zawahiri is the top planner of most terrorist attacks, including the 1998 bombings of US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya, and the "9 / 11" terrorist attacks that shocked the world in 2001. Al-Zawahiri was appointed leader of al-Qaeda in June 2011 after the death of Osama bin Laden.
Afghan interim government spokesman Mujahed condemned the United States for carrying out drone strikes in Afghanistan.
Gazprom recently wrote on social media: "preliminary data show that Gazprom produced 262.4 billion cubic meters of natural gas from January to July 2022, a decrease of 12 percent, or 35.8 billion cubic meters, compared with the same period last year."
According to Gazprom's preliminary estimates, in the first seven months of this year, international natural gas demand decreased by 35 billion cubic meters compared with the same period last year. Among them, the demand for natural gas in the 27 member states of the European Union fell by 31 billion cubic meters during this period.
Because of the turbulent international situation, the supply and prices of many international bulk pce powder are still very uncertain.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer types
The commonly used superplasticizers include polycarboxylate series, naphthalene series, fatty acid series, and other superplasticizers. Different superplasticizers have their own advantages and disadvantages.
The water reduction of naphthalene admixture is generally 17%, and the mutual adaptability with the matrix material is relatively narrow, but it is wider with the sand material, the fluidity is general, and its slump and expansibility loss are relatively large. the performance of water retention, adhesion and climate adaptability is also poor.
The water reduction of fatty acid series is generally 20%, and its mutual adaptability is similar to that of naphthalene admixtures, with general fluidity, but less loss of slump and expansibility during use, and good adhesion and climate adaptability.
The water reducer of polycarboxylate superplasticizer is generally 25%, which has wide adaptability with matrix materials and narrow adaptability with sand and gravel materials. In the process of use, the slump and expansibility loss is small, there is no loss, the fluidity is large, the water retention, adhesion and climate adaptability are good, but the requirements of using technology are higher.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer properties:
Compatibility of polycarboxylate system
Because of the special structure of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, it can not be stored and used together with other superplasticizers, especially naphthalene superplasticizer. When different types of superplasticizers are needed to be used alternately, the relevant containers must be carefully cleaned to prevent cross-contamination from affecting the quality of concrete. The adsorption performance of superplasticizer varies with different kinds of cement. Because the compatibility range of polycarboxylate superplasticizer in cement is relatively narrow, it is inevitable that the compatibility is not good. Therefore, it is necessary to increase its dosage or use different kinds of cement to effectively solve this problem.
Retarding technology of polycarboxylate superplasticizer
In the process of construction, due to the short retarding time, the use of retarder can effectively prolong the plasticity of concrete. However, the incompatibility between the two should also be considered to avoid the decline of concrete performance.
Air content control
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer has good air-entraining effect and can be used with defoamer, air-entraining agent and so on. Through elimination before introduction, the air content of concrete can be controlled and its workability and durability can be improved.
The control of sand and gravel mud content
The mud content of sand and gravel will also affect the application effect of polycarboxylate type high performance superplasticizer. If the mud content in the sand exceeds 2%, the structure between the clay layers will therefore absorb a large number of superplasticizer molecules, reducing the flow performance of the concrete. If the mud content in the construction process is relatively large, the clay-resistant polycarboxylate superplasticizer should be considered.
Concrete Additives Supplier
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