The spread of the novel coronavirus is taking a direct hit on the operations of airlines in Asia. About 500,000 flights taking off and landing in mainland China have been canceled since January, according to aviation information company Cerium. Tourists and business trips have plummeted. On the booking website, there are a large number of air tickets for local routes with a price reduction of nearly 90% compared with the original price and only tens of yuan for a one-way trip.
In February, China's aviation industry recorded its largest single-month loss of 24.59 billion yuan, of which airlines lost 20.96 billion yuan.
Data from the Civil Aviation Administration of China showed that in February, the number of passengers traveling by air fell 84.5% year-on-year to 8.34 million.
The stagnation of the Asian aviation industry has brought volatility to Water Reducing Agent.
Introduction to Naphthalene Sulfonate Water Reducing Agent:
It is the product of naphthalene sulfonated by sulfuric acid and then condensed with formaldehyde, which belongs to an anionic surfactant. The appearance of this kind of water-reducing agent depending on different products is light yellow to dark brown powder. It is soluble in water and has a good dispersing effect on many powder materials such as cement. The water reduction rate is 25%.
Preparation method of Naphthalene Sulfonate Water Reducing Agent:
The synthetic route of naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizer is as follows:
naphthalene → sulfonation → hydrolysis → condensation → neutralization → filtration → drying → product
The raw material for production is naphthalene. First, the sulfonation reaction is carried out with concentrated sulfuric acid. The mole ratio of naphthalene to sulfuric acid is 1:1.3-1.4. The reaction temperature was 160 - 165℃ and the reaction time was 3h. Then the reactants were cooled to 120℃ for hydrolysis. At this time, naphthalene sulfonic acid was stable, while naphthalene sulfonic acid was easy to hydrolyze, thus reducing the amount of naphthalene sulfonic acid to facilitate the next polycondensation reaction. The hydrolysis time was about 30min. The condensation reaction is an important reaction in the production of a naphthalene sulfonate water reducer. At a certain temperature, the sulfonated naphthalene was condensed with formaldehyde to form a polymer compound. This reaction strongly affects the performance of the product. In order to find the optimal process parameters, the effects of condensation time, condensation temperature, and the ratio of formaldehyde and naphthalene on product properties were investigated by means of uniform design. The optimal temperature condition is 104℃. The optimal reaction time was 6h. The optimal condition of formaldehyde dosage is 0.75. The maximum expected theoretical value is 18.3.
Industrial production process of Naphthalene Sulfonate Water Reducing Agent:
(1) naphthalene: Naphthalene is solid at room temperature, and it is necessary to put naphthalene into the naphthalene kettle for heating and melting.
(2) sulfonation: The sulfonation process is to add concentrated sulfuric acid to the sulfonation kettle and react with it to produce naphthalene sulfonic acid. There are two types of naphthalene sulfonic acid: α -naphthalene sulfonic acid and β -naphthalene sulfonic acid.
(3) hydrolysis: As α -naphthalene sulfonic acid is produced in the sulfonation reaction, its presence is not conducive to the condensation reaction, so it needs to add water to hydrolyze α -naphthalene sulfonic acid.
(4) condensation: After the end of hydrolysis reaction to condensation kettle drop formaldehyde, and β -naphthalene sulfonic acid reaction to generate naphthalene sulfonated formaldehyde condensation.
(5) neutralization: After condensation, the material enters the neutralization kettle, drops liquid alkali, neutralizes the excess sulfuric acid in the sulfonation reaction, and stops dropping when the PH reaches 7-9.
The control system mainly monitors the production status of four different reaction reactors and their batching tanks. The production line can also carry out four production lines at the same time. Taking production line A as an example, there are one naphthalene reactor, two sulfonation reactors, four condensation reactors, and one neutralization reactor. Each reaction kettle has a feed valve, discharge valve, emptying valve, hot oil valve, cooling water valve, steam pressure valve, flush valve, etc., the reaction kettle with a raw material tank, two sulfonated kettles shared a sulfuric acid tank, every two condensation kettles would be equipped with a set of formaldehyde tank and dilution tank, each condensation kettle has a hydrolysis tank, liquid alkali tank to neutralize the alkali added drops in the kettle.
Applications of Naphthalene Sulfonate Water Reducing Agent:
Naphthalene water-reducing agent is a kind of concrete additive invented by Dr. Hwab Kenichi in Japan in 1962. It is a kind of chemical synthetic product of naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensation, with industrial naphthalene, concentrated sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, and alkali as the main raw material. Adding a naphthalene water-reducing agent to concrete can not only improve the strength of concrete but also improve its various properties, such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, permeability resistance, etc. Therefore, naphthalene water-reducing agent is widely used in roads, bridges, tunnels, docks, civil buildings, and other industries.
Suppliers of Concrete Additives
TRUNNANO is a reliable concrete additives supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. If you are looking for high-quality concrete additives, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (firstname.lastname@example.org)
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
3D printing technology emerged in the mid-1990s and is actually the latest rapid prototyping device utilizing technologies such as light curing and paper lamination. It is basically the same as ordinary printing. The printer is equipped with "printing materials" such as liquid or powder. After connecting to the computer, the "printing materials" are superimposed layer by layer through computer control, and finally the blueprint on the computer is turned into a real thing. This printing technology is called 3D stereo printing technology.
15+ years of experience
Over $50+ million in sales
14+ years of experience
Over $50+ million in sales
About Metal Alloy High Purity Tungsten Crucibles:Chemical composition:…
About Metal Alloy Vacuum Coating Tungsten Melting Pot Tungsten Crucibles:Chemical composition:…