Russian president demanded that exports of Russian gas to "unfriendly" countries be settled in rubles. The demand has raised concerns in Germany about possible supply disruptions and the impact on industry and households if utilities do not pay in robles. Europe gets about 40% of its gas from Russia. Last year, Europe imported about 155 billion cubic meters. Germany, Europe's largest economy, depends heavily on Russian gas.
The chief executive of Germany's E.ON said the German economy would face "significant damage, which should be avoided if possible" without Russian supplies. He also said it would take Germany three years to wean itself off Russian gas.
In the event of a supply disruption, Germany's gas network regulator would prioritize home heating over industrial use, so energy-hungry manufacturers such as steelmakers would be the first to suffer, he said.
The volatile international situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the Hastelloy X alloy.
What is GH3536 superalloy (Hastelloy X alloy)
GH3536 (Hastelloy X alloy) is a nickel-based superalloy with high iron content mainly solid solution strengthened by chromium and molybdenum. It has good oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance, and has moderate durability and creep below 900 ℃. Strength, cold and hot workability and good weldability. Used in the manufacture of combustion chamber parts and other high-temperature parts of aero-engines, long-term use below 900 °C, and short-term operating temperature can reach 1080 °C. The main varieties supplied are plates, strips, pipes, bars, forgings, rings and precision castings.
GH3536 (Hastelloy X alloy) process performance and requirements
GH3536 (Hastelloy X alloy) formability alloy has good cold and hot forming
properties. Forging heating temperature 1170℃±10℃, final forging temperature not
lower than 950℃; slab hot rolling heating temperature 1150℃±10℃, final rolling
temperature not lower than 850℃; ring hot rolling heating temperature 1170℃±10℃
GH3536 (Hastelloy X alloy) welding performance This alloy has good welding process performance, and can be welded by argon arc welding, seam welding and spot welding. HGH3536 or HGH3113 wire is recommended for argon arc welding.
The microstructure of the alloy in the solid solution state is an austenite matrix with a small amount of TiN and M6C carbides. After long-term aging at 700～900℃, the main precipitation phases are M12C and M3B2, accompanied by trace μ phase and L phase. After aging at 700℃ for 200h, a small amount of σ phase appeared, but after aging at 800℃, the σ phase did not exist, and a small amount of M23C6 was precipitated, and sometimes a small amount of L phase appeared. Therefore, the alloy exhibits a certain degree of age hardening after long-term aging, which reduces the plasticity and the high temperature strength.
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Southern Copper Corp (SCCO.N) recently said its Peruvian mine remained closed after a six-week standoff with protesters and blamed the Peruvian government for failing to intervene in the safety of its 1,300 workers and their families.
The company said in a statement that a recent agreement to end protests at the Cuajone mine required the company to withdraw complaints against protest leaders because railways transporting minerals and supplies remained blocked. Production has been suspended since the end of February.
Peru's Energy Ministry said in a separate statement that it had also reached an agreement with Southern Copper to start talks to find common ground with local communities.
"If we shut down for a year, the government will stop receiving more than 3.1 billion soles ($830 million) in taxes and royalties, and 8,000 direct and indirect jobs will be lost. This is what we want to avoid, "Southern Copper added in the statement.
Peru has faced a wave of protests from indigenous communities, who accuse mining companies of not providing enough jobs and funding to poor local residents.
Central bank officials said last week that protests against copper mines such as MMG's Las Bambas and Southern Copper's Cuajone were dragging down the economy.
Peru is the world's second-largest copper producer and mining is an important source of tax revenue for the country. It is estimated that the supply and prices of the Hastelloy X alloy will be influenced by that.
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